By Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development
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Extra resources for Oecd Environmental Performance Reviews: Canada 2004 (OECD Environmental Performance Reviews)
While no federal regulations govern locomotive emissions in Canada, a MOU between Environment Canada and the Rail Association of Canada limits total NOx emissions from locomotives to below 115 000 tonnes per year in the period 1990-2005. 2 Trends in the transport sector Freight traffic,a 1990-2000 Passenger traffic,b 1990-2000 1990 = 100 1990 = 100 220 Road 220 200 200 180 180 160 160 140 Air Rail 120 Air Buses and coaches 140 GDPc GDPc 120 Domestic marine transport 100 80 Rail Private cars 100 80 0 0 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 1990 1992 1994 1998 2000 Total final energy consumption by the transport sector, 2001 Private car ownership, 1999 Pipeline 9% Canada 1996 46 Air 9% Inland navigation 3% Rail 4% 76 USA Japan 40 47 France Germany 52 56 Italy 41 United Kingdom OECD Europe 39 45 OECD 0 20 40 Road 75% 60 80 vehicles/100 persons a) Index of relative change since 1990 based on values expressed in tonne-kilometres.
The Climate Change Plan sets a target of 10% of new electricity generating capacity from emerging renewable sources. Alberta has committed to a 5% share by 2005, mostly from wind and biomass. These alternative sources often compete poorly against non-renewable sources for investments. 3 Fiscal incentives to encourage renewable energy development Canada is the world’s leading producer of electricity from large-scale hydropower. Biomass is another major source of renewable energy. The Canadian pulp and paper industry, the largest user of biomass energy, currently satisfies an impressive 54% of its energy needs (heat and electricity) with forest waste.
The policy is framed around five main themes: reform of water governance; integrated management of the St. Lawrence River basin; protection of water quality and aquatic ecosystems; further progress in waste water treatment and improved management of water services; and promotion of water-based recreation and tourism. Under each of these headings the Quebec government has undertaken to carry out various actions, such as gradually implementing integrated watershed management (23 out of 33 projected watershed agencies had already been established by mid-2003).