By David G. Williamson
Hitler's assault on Poland in 1939 used to be the 1st brutal act in six years of global struggle, however the crusade is frequently overshadowed via the momentous fight that around the remainder of Europe. David Williamson, during this well timed and thought-provoking research, reconstructs every one degree of the conflict in image element. He seems on the precarious scenario of the Polish country stuck among Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, reconsiders the pre-war guidelines of the opposite eu powers, fairly France and Britain, and assesses the nation of the opposing defense force earlier than the Germans introduced Operation White. In a vibrant and fast-moving narrative he follows the process the crusade because it moved throughout Poland in September 1939.
His e-book may still inspire a clean realizing of the Polish-German battle and of its importance for the broader conflagration that undefined. serious episodes within the German offensive are re-examined: the mock assault at Gleiwitz, the battles at Westerplatte and Bzura, the siege of Warsaw and the effect of the intervention of the pink military. through the narrative, first-hand money owed of squaddies and civilians who have been stuck up in occasions are used to offer an perception into the event of the conflict. the writer dispels myths that persist in regards to the process the crusade - the plain destruction of the Polish air strength, the Poles' use of cavalry - and he attracts awareness to sometimes missed flaws in German army association. He additionally files the fast aftermath of the Polish capitulation - the department of Poland among Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Soviet Union and the destiny of the captured Polish troops.
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Extra info for Poland Betrayed: The Nazi-Soviet Invasions of 1939
The problem was the ‘tenuous lines of communication’. Three options for supplying these bases in wartime were looked at: a) By sea to Murmansk and rail via Leningrad. b) Through the Suez Canal to Odessa and thence by rail via the USSR to Poland. c) By sea to Basra and thence by rail through Turkey to the Black Sea and across the Black Sea to Odessa. qxd 29/01/2009 15:30 Page 44 Poland Betrayed Poland. After conducting operations against German targets these would operate a ‘shuttle service’ and land alternately in Poland and Britain, so that the stockpiling of supplies in Poland could be limited.
Staff talks, for instance, were conducted in Polish, German and Russian. qxd 29/01/2009 15:30 Page 18 Poland Betrayed ethnic tensions. In September 1921 a deserter from the 2nd Squadron, 15th Uªan (Lancer) Regiment in Pozna÷ crossed the German border and told his German interrogators that: Clothing is very frugal. Each man has only a single pair of boots [. ] the attitude of the troops in Posen is very divided, since there are many troops from Congress Poland. The Pozna÷ troops all wish for union with Germany.
Up to the outbreak of war in September 1939 the Poles continued to keep abreast of the latest technical changes in Enigma. Here they really were at the cutting-edge of technology and had a gift of immense value to present to Britain and France. In January and then again in July 1939 British and French cipher experts met with their Polish counterparts, and an Enigma machine was taken back to both London and Paris. From the Anschluss to the Seizure of Teschen The main guidelines of Polish foreign policy were laid down by Piªsudski and implemented by his foreign secretary, Józef Beck.