By Teun A. van Dijk
During this publication, a research is made up of ethnic prejudice in cognition and dialog, in response to in depth interviewing of white majority staff individuals. After an introductory survey of conventional and newer methods in social psychology to the examine of prejudice, a brand new 'sociocognitive' conception is sketched. This thought explains how cognitive representations and methods of ethnic prejudice rely on their social services inside intergroup family members. it's also proven how ethnic prejudice is communicated in society via daily speak between majority individuals. the most important a part of the e-book systematically analyzes many of the dimensions of prejudiced conversations, similar to topical constructions, storytelling, argumentation, neighborhood semantic concepts, type and rhetoric, and extra particular conversational homes. it's proven that such an specific discourse research could exhibit underlying cognitive representations and strategic makes use of of prejudice. additionally, it seemed that many facets of prejudiced speak are geared in the direction of the general strategic pursuits of sufficient self-expression and confident self-presentation. This ebook is interdisciplinary in nature and may be of curiosity to linguists, discourse analysts, cognitive and social psychologists, sociologists, and all these attracted to ethnic stereotypes, prejudice, and racism.
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Extra info for Prejudice in Discourse: An Analysis of Ethnic Prejudice in Cognition and Conversation
Such a protoschema consists of an organized cluster of relevant social categories of such groups. Appearance, social status, or typical actions may be part of such a schema. Obviously, these categories are not arbitrary. On the contrary, what we store in our attitudes about relevant (out)groups must be relevant and functional in our dealings with such groups. Hence, they ultimately have a socially shared basis. Our major assumption, then, is that ethnic prejudice, besides its obvious cognitive dimensions, requires a specification in these social terms: their contents, categories, and schematic organization (hierarchy, relevance, coherence) are determined by societal functions, cultural norms and values, and the histor ical background of the group.
This means that in situations of everyday social conflict, actions of white majority members against minor ity members will be less in focus, so that any reaction to negative actions in negative terms will be more salient for minority members. Here we also find 30 PREJUDICE IN DISCOURSE one (cognitive) component of the process of discrimination: negative actions of minorities get more attention than negative actions of ingroup members. In fact, this would hold for all actions, and especially salient actions, and the negative direction of such a strategic analysis of the situation will be deter mined by the contents of the group schema: negative actions may be expected and hence 'looked for', and if they occur (or are thought to occur), they will in turn confirm the group schema (cf.
These are most relevant for the many instances of everyday situations of perception and interaction with minority group members. And these may also be precisely the kinds of prejudices that are subtly enacted in everyday actions of majority members against minorities (Essed 1984). Notice also that the theoretical assumptions made above about the social basis for the categorical organization of group schemata in principle holds for the formation of prejudices against any outgroup. So, also prejudices against women, against young people, 'punks', squatters, football fans, and so on, basically seem to be organized in that way.