Probiotics: The scientific basis by Ray Fuller

By Ray Fuller

1 background and improvement of probiotics.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 History.- 1.3 Composition of probiotic preparations.- References.- 2 Bacterial interactions within the gut.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 tools for learning bacterial interactions.- 2.3 major sorts of bacterial interactions within the gut.- 2.3 Conclusions.- References.- three Metabolic interactions within the gut.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Mammalian intestinal metabolism.- 3.3 intestine bacterial metabolism.- 3.4 Conclusions.- References.- four Translocation and the indigenous intestine flora.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Defence opposed to bacterial translocation.- 4.3 Bacterial translocation in animal versions with a number of deficiencies in host defences.- 4.4 Conclusion.- References.- five intestine flowers and sickness resistance.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Colonization resistance.- 5.3 Suppression of the multiplication of pathogens via the intestinal microflora.- 5.4 Mechanisms answerable for suppression of pathogens.- 5.5 Conclusions.- 5.6 The probiotic concept.- References.- 6 components affecting the microecology of the gut.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Definitions.- 6.3 Use of 1 or a constrained variety of bacterial traces in probiotic preparations.- 6.4 Ecological considerations.- 6.5 thoughts for destiny developments.- References.- 7 Probiotics and the immune state.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 impact of orally administered lactic acid micro organism on immunity: non-specific and particular immune response.- 7.3 impression of oral management at the secretory immune system.- 7.4 impact at the safety opposed to enteric infections.- References.- eight Genetit manipulation of intestine microorganisms.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Microbes of strength interest.- 8.3 Molecular genetical studies.- 8.4 balance of genetic determinants.- 8.5 attainable developments.- 8.6 unlock of genetically converted microbes.- 8.7 Conclusions.- References.- nine collection of lines for probiotic use.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 goal of this chapter.- 9.3 First steps within the number of microbial strains.- 9.4 Species and viability of probiotic microorganisms.- 9.5 Processing of practicable microorganisms to end-products.- 9.6 Resistance to in vivo conditions.- 9.7 Adherence and colonization.- 9.8 Antimicrobial activity.- 9.9 Gene technology.- 9.10 Conclusion.- References.- 10 Probiotics for chickens.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 the traditional intestinal plants of poultry.- 10.3 Host—microbial plant life interactions.- 10.4 the appliance of probiosis to poultry.- 10.5 Lactic acid micro organism as probiotics.- 10.6 aggressive exclusion.- 10.7 Immunity.- 10.8 Bacteriophages.- 10.9 Summary.- References.- eleven Probiotics for pigs.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 targeted positive factors of pigs suitable to using probiotics.- 11.3 present use of probiotics.- 11.4 Efficacy.- 11.5 sensible features of capability probiotic strains.- 11.6 basic discussion.- References.- 12 Probiotics for ruminants.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 Probiotics for younger ruminants.- 12.3 Fungal feed ingredients for grownup ruminants.- 12.4 Bacterial probiotics for grownup ruminants.- 12.5 destiny developments.- References.- thirteen Probiotics for humans.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract.- 13.3 present use of probiotics.- 13.4 dietary merits of probiotics.- 13.5 healing merits of probiotics.- 13.6 newer advancements within the sector of probiotics and health.- 13.7 houses required for probiotics to be potent in dietary and healing settings.- 13.8 destiny improvement of probiotics for human use.- 13.9 destiny purposes of probiotics.- 13.10 thoughts for probiotic modification.- References.- 14 difficulties and prospects.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 elements affecting the probiotic response.- 14.3 destiny developments.- 14.4 Summary.- References.

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Boulardii were dying; all those with Sac boulardii were healthy. Sac. boulardii counts were around 109 g-l of caecum. Counts of C. perfringens were not significantly different. The amounts of toxins were significantly different. 7 Bacterial interactions resulting in transfer of bacterial genes The expression of bacterial genes in the gut can be modified by environmental factors. But transfers of genes can also occur between bacterial species within the gut. Duval-Iflah et 01. (1981) have demonstrated such transfers by conjugation between strains belonging to the same species.

And Verschoor-Burggraaf, A. (1981) Effects of the human intestinal flora on germ-free mice. J. Appl. , 50, 95-106. , et al. (1976) Elimination du tube digestif d'un enfant 'gnotoxenique' d'une souche de Lactobacillus casei issue d'une preparation commerciale: demonstration chez des souris 'gnotoxeniques' du role antagoniste d'une souche de Escherichia coli d'origine humaine. Ann. Microbial. (lnst. Pasteur), 127B, 75-82. , Ducluzeau, Rand Bridonneau, C. (1982) Effet antagoniste a. l'egard de Clostridium perfringens exerce par des souches de Clostridium isolees de la microflore de souris holoxeniques dans Ie tube digestif de souris gnotoxeniques.

Fermentation of protein and lipid reaching the large intestine also contributes to SCFAs in the colon, particularly the branched-chain SCFAs. , 1990). , 1978). The SCFA concentration is an important factor determining the pH of the colonic lumen. , 1989b). 2 Effect of probiotics on foreign compound metabolism by gut microflora The effect of administration of probiotic organisms on bacterial enzymes of toxicological importance has been addressed in a number of papers. There is evidence from one of the early papers by Goldin and Gorbach (1977) that the modulating effect of probiotic organisms was dependent on the type of diet fed.

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