By Oskar Niedermayer, Richard Sinnott
New enterprises of foreign govt are one of the so much leading edge and experimental features of overdue twentieth-century politics. This publication examines mass opinion concerning the eu Union, its constructions, powers, operations, growth, and legitimacy, however it additionally bargains with the UN and NATO.
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Extra resources for Public Opinion and Internationalized Governance (Beliefs in Government , Vol 2)
Neo-functionalist Conditions Of Integration Source: constructed from Haas and Schmitter (1964: 705–37). (condition 9). 2 parallel some of the ‘essential conditions’ in the Deutsch scheme, in this case they refer exclusively to élite, group, or institutional characteristics and patterns. Denial of the relevance of mass attitudes in the integration process is made quite explicit by Haas (1958: 16) when he elaborates on his deﬁnition of political integration. He explains at some length that the ‘political actors’ in the deﬁnition are ‘elites’: ‘the leaders of all relevant political groups who habitually participate in the making of public decisions, whether as policy-makers in government, as lobbyists or as spokesmen of political parties’.
This is particularly evident in his new ‘master concept’ of authority legitimacy transfer or sharing: ‘a formulation I would myself prefer to the stress put on elite loyalties in my own earlier formulations’. Indicators of this concept are observable in activity ‘in speciﬁc functional and organizational sectors and . . in elite and mass perceptions’ (emphasis added). This acceptance of the role of mass attitudes is conﬁrmed when Haas addresses the problem of linking ‘variables that describe the rate of transaction between units with variables that describe the attitudes of masses and members of the elites’.
Integration Theory Revived Just as the debate about integration theory in the late 1960s was consciously revisionist, the debate which emerged in the late 1980s was consciously revivalist, the intention being to ‘to rebuild the conceptual debate on European integration’ (Wallace 1990a: 4). Likewise, Keohane and Hoffmann (1990: 284) argue for a re-examination of theories of integration, particularly neo-functionalism: It seems unfortunate to us that many of the accounts of European Community politics have discarded older theories, such as neofunctionalism, without putting anything theoretical in their place.