Reasoning with Logic Programming by Jose Julio Alferes, Luis Moniz Pereira

By Jose Julio Alferes, Luis Moniz Pereira

As the 1st monograph within the box, this cutting-edge survey offers a rigorous presentation of good judgment courses as representational and reasoning tools.
The authors used this ebook effectively as a textual content for a MSc direction. using good judgment programming for numerous forms of reasoning, relatively for nonmonotonic reasoning, is punctiliously investigated and illustrated and various wisdom illustration formalisms, like default negation, integrity constraints, default principles, etc., are handled intensive. in addition to the most textual content, distinct introductory historical past and motivational details is integrated including a bibliography directory 215 entries in addition to the directory of the Prolog interpreter utilized in the textual content for working quite a few examples.

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Let Q I = Q T U not Q F be a set of literals such that Q T does not contain any pair ol objective literals A, -~A. C o h ( Q I ) is the interpretation T U not F such that T = Q T and F = Q F U {-,L [ L e T}. The Cob operator is not defined for contradictory sets of literals. The result of Coh applied to l e a s t ( P ) is always an interpretation. T h e noncontradiction and coherence conditions are guaranteed by definition. T and F are disjoint because Q T and Q F are disjoint and none of the objective literals added to F are in T since T is noncontradictory.

61, 60]) that for some rules the body is true and the head isn't. This violates the classical notion of models, and is quite unintuitive. 3. Why a new semantics for extended programs? 33 In our view, a declarative semantics for extended programs should not impose any preference between positive and explicit negative information. Their treatment should be symmetric. It is up to the programmer to, for each specific case, write his program in such a way that the desired preferences are made. 1. The semantics of [180] based on the well-founded semantics does not suffer from the problems of answer-sets.

Consider the non-negative p r o g r a m P : a ~b ~-~-- --a b ~ ~-- 75 u where least(P) = {a,-~a,-~b}. This set is not an interpretation (cf. 1). N o n c o n t r a d i c t i o n and coherence are violated. 2. Consider the p r o g r a m P : a b -~a ~-~ not b not b and the interpretation I = {--a, not a, not ~b}. p a ~-- u --= b ~ u I -~a So, l e a s t ( P ) = (-~a, not -~b}. A l t h o u g h n o n c o n t r a d i c t o r y this set of literals violates coherence. To impose coherence, when contradiction is not present, we define a partial o p e r a t o r t h a t transforms any n o n c o n t r a d i c t o r y set of literals into an interpretation.

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