Receptor-like Kinases in Plants: From Development to Defense by Melissa D. Lehti-Shiu, Cheng Zou, Shin-Han Shiu (auth.),

By Melissa D. Lehti-Shiu, Cheng Zou, Shin-Han Shiu (auth.), Frans Tax, Birgit Kemmerling (eds.)

Sequencing tasks have printed the presence of not less than a number of hundred receptor kinases in a regular plant genome. Receptor kinases are hence the most important kin of basic sign transducers in crops, and their abundance indicates a huge signaling community that we have got in basic terms simply began to discover. fresh learn findings point out that specific receptor kinases satisfy vital roles in progress and improvement, within the acceptance of pathogens and symbionts or, in a couple of examples, in either development and safety. This quantity will concentrate on the jobs of receptor kinases, their signaling pathways, and the ways that those very important signaling proteins are regulated.

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Mutations in the POLTERGEIST (POL) gene suppress the enlarged meristem phenotypes of clv1, clv2 (Yu et al. 2000) and also crn mutants (M€ uller et al. 2008) (Fig. 2a, b). POL acts downstream of the CLV genes and encodes a protein phosphatase 2C that, with other members from the plant kingdom, belong to a unique subclass of phosphatases (Yu et al. 2003). POL and the related PLL1 (POLTERGEIST_LIKE-1) protein promote WUS expression in shoot and floral meristems (Song and Clark 2005; Song et al. 2006), but are also required for the specification of vascular cells and the root meristem during embryogenesis (Song et al.

As described above, exogenous application of or constitutive misexpression of CLV3, CLE40 or CLE19 caused inhibition of root growth, due to premature differentiation of meristem cells (Casamitjana-Martinez et al. 2003; Hobe et al. 2003; Fiers et al. 2004). These early results suggested that a CLV-like signalling pathway also operates in the root. However, knockout mutants in several root-expressed RLKs were aphenotypic, and only CLV2 and CRN, which are both expressed in the vasculature of the root meristem, were found to be required for the growth-limiting phenotypes after high-level misexpression of CLE peptides (Fiers et al.

POL phosphatase activity is stimulated upon binding of phosphatidylinositol (4) phosphate (PI4P), suggesting that stem cell fate in meristems may be strongly influenced by the lipid composition of the plasma membrane. It is conceivable that preferential activation of CLV receptors by CLV3 at the apical side of a cell could then locally restrict PI4P availability. The resulting polar distribution of PI4P would cause a corresponding polar activation of phosphatases such as POL, which could underly the mechanism that generates asymmetries after stem cell division.

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