Religious Toleration and Social Change in Hamburg, 1529-1819 by Joachim Whaley

By Joachim Whaley

The emergence of non secular toleration used to be one of many major positive factors of the advance of Western society after the Reformation. whereas prior examine has targeted principally on principles of toleration, this research of the Lutheran Imperial urban of Hamburg analyses the way these principles have been got and steadily carried out. Hamburg was once probably the most dynamic mercantile centres of early smooth Europe. It attracted monstrous numbers of Catholics, Calvinists and Jews. Dr Whaley examines the standards, which encouraged the customarily uneasy dating with the Lutheran majority. He illuminates the interplay among faith, politics and social switch, and indicates the effect of foreign routine and German Imperial laws on neighborhood controversies. An research of the key non secular and secular festivities, just like the centenaries of the Reformation, illuminates these deep-rooted political and ideological components which cancelled out the most obvious financial and humanitarian arguments in favour of open toleration.

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22 Hamburg from Reformation to French Revolution IV One theme ran consistently through the constitutional history of the city after the Reformation: the search for purity of faith. The movement of the 1520s could obviously be interpreted in this light. The constitution of 1603 firmly placed adherence to pure Lutheranism in its first article as the foundation of the polity. The constitution of 1712 reiterated this point. Indeed, in the eighteenth century, the principle of purity of belief became idiomatic to all interpretations of both past and present.

The clergy made a substantial contribution to the foundation of the Gymnasium in 1613. Their own authority was then further enhanced by the fact that Hamburg survived the Thirty Years War relatively unscathed. 98 The first major threat to clerical solidarity came with the appointment of a Pietist in 1679, Pastor Anton Reiser. In 1684 Spener's friend, Johann Winckler, was elected Pastor of St Michael's; and a year later Spener's brother-in-law Johann Heinrich Horb was elected in St Nicholas'. Reiser's appointment was uncontentious; those of Winckler and Horb were firmly opposed by the Ministry - they were secured only as a result of the active manipulation of the church wardens by a few wealthy merchants.

The Burgerschaft abolished the property qualification for attendance at its meetings and substituted the simple criterion of Lutheran faith, thus institutionalising the power of the mob. Furthermore, it insisted that henceforth only men nominated by itself would be elected to the Senate. , pp. 276-81. , pp. 281-2. 47 If the Hamburg polity had hitherto been characterised by a mixture of aristocracy and democracy, the democratic principle was now exclusive. The new status quo was impossible. Mayer left Hamburg in 1701 to become Superintendent in Griefswald, but his colleague Pastor Christian Krumbholtz of St Peter's took over his role.

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