Ruthenium: Synthesis, Physicochemical Properties and by Gary P. Keeler

By Gary P. Keeler

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Epimastigotes in the midgut of the triatomine hematophagous vector (above) differentiate into metacyclic trypomastigotes that are released in the feces during the blood meal. By means of scratching/rubbing, or through the mucosa (a) the infective parasite forms penetrate neighboring host cells (b). Internalized parasites reside for a few hours inside the parasitophorous vacuole from which they escape, and differentiate into the dividing amastigote that grows free in the cytoplasm (c). After approximately nine cycles, amastigotes differentiate back into trypomastigotes (d) which disrupt the infected cell and may either disseminate the infection (f) or infect another insect vector (g).

Dinuclear complexes offer increased variation in shape and size and have the potential to show greater specificity. [{Ru(phen)2}2(l-HAT)]4 has been shown to strongly bind partially denatured DNA, [229] [{Ru(Me2bpy)2}2(l-bpm)]4 specifically binds DNA bulge sequences, [230] [{Ru(dpq)2}2(phen-x–SOS–phen)]4+ (x = 3, 4, 5) exhibit high DNA affinity at 100 mM NaCl concentration. [231] Chao et al. [232] reported on [(phen)2Ru(mbpibH2)Ru(phen)2]4+ which binds to DNA by inserting the bridging moiety into adjacent base pairs.

Holder et al. [236] reported the synthesis, characterization and biological properties of two ruthenium(II)-vanadium(IV) complexes: [Ru(pbt)2(tpphz) VO(sal-L-tryp)](PF6)2●6H2O and [Ru(pbt)2(phen2DTT)VO(sal-L-tryp)](PF6)2 ●5H2O, the structures of which are shown in figure 30. [237] Biological screenings showed the monomer [VO(sal-L-tryp)(phen)]●H2O and [Ru(pbt)2 (tpphz)VO(sal-L-tryp)]Cl2 were the most active against A431 carcinoma cells with IC50 values comparable to those obtained for cisplatin as shown in table 4, while showing significantly less toxicity to non-cancerous HFF (human foreskin fibroblast).

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