By Ilaria L.E. Ramelli
Have been slavery and social injustice resulting in dire poverty in antiquity and overdue antiquity purely considered as basic, "natural" (Aristotle), or at top whatever morally "indifferent" (the Stoics), or, within the Christian milieu, a tragic yet inevitable final result of the autumn, or perhaps an expression of God's unquestionable will? Social Justice and the Legitimacy of Slavery indicates that there have been additionally definitive condemnations of slavery and social injustice as iniquitous or even impious, and that those got here in particular from ascetics, either in Judaism and in Christianity, and infrequently additionally in Greco-Roman ("pagan") philosophy. Ilaria L. E. Ramelli argues that this relies on a hyperlink not just among asceticism and renunciation, but in addition among asceticism and justice, at the very least in old and overdue vintage philosophical asceticism.
Ramelli offers a cautious research via all of historic Philosophy (not in basic terms Aristotle and the Stoics, but additionally the Sophists, Socrates, Plato, the Neoplatonists, and masses more), historic to Rabbinic Judaism, Hellenistic Jewish ascetic teams resembling the Essenes and the Therapeutae, all the New testomony, with specified concentrate on Paul and Jesus, and Greek, Latin, and Syriac Patristic, from Clement and Origen to the Cappadocians, from John Chrysostom to Theodoret to Byzantine monastics, from Ambrose to Augustine, from Bardaisan to Aphrahat, with no neglecting the Christianized Sentences of Sextus. specifically, Ramelli considers Gregory of Nyssa and the interrelation among concept and perform in all of those historic and patristic philosophers, in addition to to the parallels that emerge of their arguments opposed to slavery and opposed to social injustice.
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Additional info for Social Justice and the Legitimacy of Slavery: The Role of Philosophical Asceticism from Ancient Judaism to Late Antiquity
In a fragment from Book 3 of his lost Republic (De republica), which was inspired by Plato’s own Republic, Cicero distinguished a kind of slavery which is just from one that is unjust. The latter is ‘when those who are able to govern themselves are found under the control of another’ (Rep. 38). Fragmentary evidence is always difficult to interpret; one could, however, suppose that for Cicero—a slave owner himself—the only kind of just slavery would be when mentally impaired people are entrusted to other, mentally superior people, who can tell them what to do.
The notions of moral slavery and moral freedom, treated in accordance with the canons of Stoicism, are the focus of his Satires. In Satire 5, the moral imperative is that what is needed is freedom, meaning moral freedom: addressing the fools, Persius remarks that ‘reason has granted you nothing; raise but a finger, and you commit an error…No incense you offer will make even a little half-ounce of rectitude [recti] stick to fools [stultis]…“I am free” [liber ego]. Whence do you derive this idea, you who are a slave to so many things [tot subdite rebus]…?
Another Roman Stoic from the age of Nero, and therefore a contemporary of Chaeremon, Musonius, and Seneca, is Aules Persius Flaccus,111 from Etruscan Volterra. The notions of moral slavery and moral freedom, treated in accordance with the canons of Stoicism, are the focus of his Satires. In Satire 5, the moral imperative is that what is needed is freedom, meaning moral freedom: addressing the fools, Persius remarks that ‘reason has granted you nothing; raise but a finger, and you commit an error…No incense you offer will make even a little half-ounce of rectitude [recti] stick to fools [stultis]…“I am free” [liber ego].