By Bernhard Hurch
Even though a slightly marginal phenomenon in Indo-European languages, in so much different language households reduplication performs a major function within the association of morphology. The repetition of (some a part of) a be aware or stem or affix usually expresses plurality, distributivity, depth, a verbal element and aktionsart, but in addition diminution, attenuation, or others. This quantity collects a sequence of articles which in a fertile dialogue transcend the bounds of unmarried theories and provide remedies of the main diversified features from formal and practical views, semantics, morphology, and phonology, in numerous fields of linguistics (sign language, language acquisition, comparative studies), in addition to unique reports of quite a lot of languages from diverse components of the area.
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Arapesh (Torricelli, Papua New Guinea) employs reduplication to intensify or distribute the meaning of an action, often implying carelessness or lack of control on the part of the agent: su 'touch, hold' susu 'touch all over, paw'; ripok 'cut' rirtpok 'hack up' (Dobrin 2001: 36). Comox (Salish, Canada) employs -VC reduplication to express actions which lack control: c'ek'w-n Ί put a light on it' > c'ik'w-k'w-n Ί put a light on it by mistake' (Kroeber 1988: 162). ax ya:-ya-yax sa:-sa-sa:msa would would would would certainly pay arrive go all over to tell it to all buy Reduplication is used in a few languages to mark the inchoative, designating the start of a verbal action.
Mysore. Central Institute of Indian Languages Grammar Series I. Hagman, Roy S. 1977 Nama Hottentot Grammar. Bloomington: Indiana University Research Center for Language and Semiotic Studies. Hardy, Heather and Timothy Montier 1988 Imperfective gemination in Alabama. International Journal of American Linguistics 54: 399^115. Reduplication: Form, function and distribution 27 Harrison, David 2000 Topics in the phonology and morphology of Tuvan. D. Dissertation, Yale University. Harrison, Sheldon P.
7 da s-li-i-fe'i-i asnux ns-i-i-as-asmxw-i yahs c-yi-yi-yahis-ύί sick I am beginning to sicken. know I begin to know. see I begin to see. g. potooli 'touch' > pottooli 'coming together' (Hardy and Montier 1988: 413). Reduplication can be used to create lexical subclasses. g. g. cula 'sew' > cula-cula 'sew away'; rabe 'kick' > rabe-rabe 'do a lot of kicking' (Dixon 1988: 48). With nouns, reduplicative morphemes have been known to denote concepts such as number, case (#13), distributivity, indefiniteness, reciprocity, size (diminutives or augmentatives), and associative qualities.