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5 pm. It derives from the repulsive effects of overlapping electron charge clouds. 5 Lewis Structures • Covalent bond → Pairs of electrons shared between two atoms → Located between two neighboring atoms and binds them together Examples: Nonmetallic elements such as H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2, P4, and S8 • Rules → Atoms attempt to complete duplets or octets by sharing pairs of valence electrons. → Valence of an atom is the number of bonds it can form. → A line (–) represents a shared pair of electrons.
For example, the tabulated C–H single bond value is the average strength of such bonds in a selection of organic molecules, such as methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), and possibly ethene (C2H4). 15 K. 3 apply at 0 K (absolute zero). • Factors influencing bond strength → Bond multiplicity → Resonance (C≡C > C=C > C–C) (C=C > CC (benzene) > C–C) → Lone pairs on neighboring atoms (F–F < H–H) → Atomic radii (HF > HCl > HBr > HI) Note: The smaller the radius, the stronger the bond. 16 Bond Lengths • Bond length → Internuclear distance, at the potential energy minimum, of two atoms linked by a covalent bond → Helps determine the overall size and shape of a molecule → Evaluated by using spectroscopic or x-ray diffraction (for solids) methods → For bonds between the same elements, length is inversely proportional to strength.
Lanthanides are used in electronic devices such as plasma TVs, disk drives, and mobile phones. → Actinides are all radioactive elements, most do not occur naturally on Earth. 1 The Ions That Elements Form • Cations → Remove outermost electrons in the order np, ns, (n−1) d • Metallic s-block elements and metallic p-block elements in Periods 2 and 3 → Form cations by losing electrons down to the noble-gas core Examples: Mg, [Ne] 3s2 → magnesium(II), Mg2+, [Ne]; Al, [Ne] 3s2 3p1 → aluminum(ΙΙΙ), Al3+, [Ne] • Metallic p-block elements in Periods 4 and higher → Form cations with complete, typically unreactive d-subshells Example: Ga, [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p1 → gallium(III), Ga3+, [Ar] 3d10 • Metallic d-block elements → Lose s-electrons and often a variable number of d-electrons Examples: iron(II), Fe 2+, [Ar] 3d 6 and iron(III), Fe 3+, [Ar] 3d 5 • Many metallic p-block elements → May lose either their p-electrons or all their s- and p-electrons in the valence shell Example: Sn, [Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p2 → tin(II), Sn 2+, [Kr] 5s2 4d10 or tin(IV), Sn 4+, [Kr] 4d10 • Anions → Add electrons until the next noble-gas configuration is reached.