By Andrew Shepherd (auth.)
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Buoyant prices are more likely to be assured by steady research on a wide variety of crops and systems over a long period than by focusing on a few crops and intensive short-term research. Farmgate prices will be one of the determinants of farm labourers' wages. Health In the higher-potential areas, GR methods have been applied with great success in terms of production, but at what is increasingly perceived to be enormous and unacceptable cost in terms of human health and the environment. These environmental and health costs have been amply catalogued by Conway and Pretty (1991).
Nevertheless, there are dominant paradigms: in the 1980s neoclassical economics with its advocacy of the unfettered market re-emerged as the dominant social science paradigm, through its influence in governments, Towards a New Paradigm 21 especially the USA and the UK, and through them the multilateral donor institutions, especially the IMF and World Bank. Whereas in the 1970s, when I first started to work on rural development, 'taking the part of the peasant', as Williams (1981) expressed it, was only really possible by criticising existing theories and practice, it is now possible to work in an alternative development tradition.
Health In the higher-potential areas, GR methods have been applied with great success in terms of production, but at what is increasingly perceived to be enormous and unacceptable cost in terms of human health and the environment. These environmental and health costs have been amply catalogued by Conway and Pretty (1991). While death and illness which can clearly be attributed to pesticide use, in particular, is minimal in rich countries it appears to be significant in poor countries, though evidence is patchy.