Technology Transfer and Industrial Change in Europe by Helen Lawton Smith

By Helen Lawton Smith

This e-book severely examines the phenomenon and the results of the expanding inter-dependence among undefined, universities, and nationwide laboratories. It explores the contrasts and similarities among the styles of formal and casual hyperlinks in a technologically dynamic with these in a standard within the united kingdom, France, and Belgium. It makes use of facts from interviews with organisations, teachers, and corporations within the 3 counties to spot the foremost elements which keep watch over links.

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BCR and Standards, Measurement and Testing Programmes BCR was part of the Industrial and Materials Technologies Programme. It was allocated only 140 MECU under the second Framework Programme. BCR was replaced by the Standards Measurement and Testing Programme on 15 December 1994. Under the Fourth Framework Programme the Standards Measurement and Testing programme’s budget at 288 MECU was double that under the Second Framework Programme, but as the budget for the whole Industrial and Materials Technologies Programme had more than doubled, BCR comprised an even smaller component of the programme than a decade earlier.

Producing new technologies and developing new organizational principles determine long-term success in terms of increased quality and innovation of products and, thus, economic growth. Product life cycles are increasingly reduced; products rarely reach a stage of maturity as they become obsolete or are outcompeted before they can become fully standardized. Continuous technological change is the hallmark of today’s competitive struggle and determines a company’s and a country’s economic success.

2 European Union funding Programmes are funded through the EU’s regular budget and all member states contribute financially to the programmes. A total amount for R&D is allocated and decided upon within the EC’s total budget and distributed according to the number of categories in each of the Programmes (Skoie 1995, 33). The scale and scope of the EU’s support for research has continued to grow but remains a small proportion of total expenditure on R&D in the EU as a whole; in 1993 EC funding represented less than 4 per cent of total government research funding in the 12 member states.

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