By Helen Lawton Smith
Read Online or Download Technology Transfer and Industrial Change in Europe PDF
Similar development & growth books
This publication analyzes the consequences of the break-up of the Soviet Union into fifteen self sustaining states. issues mentioned contain: * earlier and current financial relatives among the republics, and forecasts for the longer term * dialogue of Customs Unions, financial Union or funds Union as attainable methods ahead for those states * financial integration thought * how the states of the Soviet Union functioned prior to the dissolution.
The well known 'Kerala version' of improvement has been the focal point of debate for the previous a number of years and the 1st variation of this publication, released in 1999, was once an important contribution to that discuss. This revised variation focuses no longer loads at the extra well-researched determinants of Kerala's luck yet at the hitherto missed financial backwardness of the country, the industrial reforms applied because the early Nineties, the wide fiscal adjustments in the course of the Nineteen Nineties, and the commercial difficulties and improvement concerns dealing with Kerala this day.
Booklet through J. Aitchison, J. A. C. Brown
One of many world’s prime economists of inequality, Branko Milanovic provides a daring new account of the dynamics that force inequality on a world scale. Drawing on enormous information units and state-of-the-art learn, he explains the benign and malign forces that make inequality upward thrust and fall inside of and between international locations.
Extra info for Technology Transfer and Industrial Change in Europe
BCR and Standards, Measurement and Testing Programmes BCR was part of the Industrial and Materials Technologies Programme. It was allocated only 140 MECU under the second Framework Programme. BCR was replaced by the Standards Measurement and Testing Programme on 15 December 1994. Under the Fourth Framework Programme the Standards Measurement and Testing programme’s budget at 288 MECU was double that under the Second Framework Programme, but as the budget for the whole Industrial and Materials Technologies Programme had more than doubled, BCR comprised an even smaller component of the programme than a decade earlier.
Producing new technologies and developing new organizational principles determine long-term success in terms of increased quality and innovation of products and, thus, economic growth. Product life cycles are increasingly reduced; products rarely reach a stage of maturity as they become obsolete or are outcompeted before they can become fully standardized. Continuous technological change is the hallmark of today’s competitive struggle and determines a company’s and a country’s economic success.
2 European Union funding Programmes are funded through the EU’s regular budget and all member states contribute financially to the programmes. A total amount for R&D is allocated and decided upon within the EC’s total budget and distributed according to the number of categories in each of the Programmes (Skoie 1995, 33). The scale and scope of the EU’s support for research has continued to grow but remains a small proportion of total expenditure on R&D in the EU as a whole; in 1993 EC funding represented less than 4 per cent of total government research funding in the 12 member states.