By Peter J. Bowler, John V. Pickstone
This publication within the hugely revered Cambridge heritage of technology sequence is dedicated to the background of the existence and earth sciences considering the fact that 1800. It presents entire and authoritative surveys of historic pondering on significant advancements in those components of technology , at the social and cultural milieus within which the data was once generated, and at the wider impression of the main theoretical and sensible concepts. The articles have been written by means of said specialists who offer concise bills of the newest ancient pondering coupled with publications to crucial fresh literature. as well as histories of conventional sciences , the booklet covers the emergence of more moderen disciplines resembling genetics, biochemistry, and geophysics. The interplay of medical suggestions with their useful functions in components akin to drugs is an enormous concentration of the publication, as is its insurance of arguable components reminiscent of technological know-how and faith and environmentalism.
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Additional info for The Cambridge History of Science Volume 6: Modern Life and Earth Sciences
33–69. See also Robert H. Kargon, Science in Victorian Manchester: Enterprise and Expertise (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1977). On the continued role of gentlemenamateurs even within the influential “X club,” see Adrian Desmond, “Redefining the X Axis: ‘Professionals,’ ‘Amateurs’ and the Making of Mid-Victorian Biology,” Journal of the History of Biology, 34 (2001), 3–50. Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 12:12 P1: JyD 9780521572019c02 CUUS457/Bowler 978 0 521 57201 9 Amateurs and Professionals December 24, 2008 19 r “Practitioners,” those largely employed in science-related occupations using their scientific training but not necessarily publishing; r “Cultivators,” those applying their knowledge in some kind of scientific activity but not remunerated and quite often concerned with their own self-education rather than the increase of knowledge.
T. Stainton, “At Home,” Entomologists’ Weekly Intelligencer, 5 (1859), 73–4; A. S. Kennard, “Fifty and One Years of the Geologists’ Association,” Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 58 (1948), 271–93. Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 12:12 P1: JyD 9780521572019c02 22 CUUS457/Bowler 978 0 521 57201 9 December 24, 2008 David E. Allen Collecting may even have retarded the development of a more scientific natural history. It was fun, it was only too easy, and it provided a purpose for travelers with time on their hands.
Infectious disease in the tropics remained important for the British and French empires, and the Rockefeller Foundation funded American studies – for the southern states as well as for countries in which the United States had a growing economic interest. The Rockefeller Foundation also emerged as a major player in fundamental science, supporting a program in what became molecular biology. Since 1940, the world of biomedical sciences has been transformed by the two forms of investment that had emerged strongly by the end of the nineteenth century – from governments and from industry.