The Catholics and German Unity: 1866-1871 by George G. Windell

By George G. Windell

The Catholics and German solidarity used to be first released in 1954. Minnesota Archive versions makes use of electronic know-how to make long-unavailable books once more obtainable, and are released unaltered from the unique college of Minnesota Press editions.

The interval of German historical past among the overthrow of the outdated German Confederation in 1866 and the institution of the second one Reich in 1871 used to be serious and far-reaching in its effect upon next occasions in Germany and in Europe. it's, accordingly, a interval that also advantages shut scrutiny and research in all its points via historians.

In this specific examine, Professor Windell lines the advance of political hobbies between German Catholics in the course of these years and explores the connection of many of the streams of Catholic political motion to the bigger questions of German background. The warfare of 1866, which ended Austrian predominance in Germany, was once a shattering blow to German Catholics. in the course of the subsequent 5 years they progressively adjusted to the recent events and have been accountable for a chain of political activities which exerted a strong and usually underestimated results on country governments, on different political events, and at the household and international coverage of Bismarck.

Although an excessive amount of fabric used to be on hand on Catholic political task within the person German states, it had no longer, previously, been synthesized right into a accomplished, unmarried paintings putting those occasions in right viewpoint opposed to the wider canvas of history.

Of this booklet Hans Rothfels, professor of heritage on the college of Chicago and the collage of Tubingen, Germany, says: "Without being a fan of any aspect, actually with massive circumspection, the writer analyzes and translates an outstanding 19th century hindrance to which the basis of the German Reich provides just a particular issue."

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65 Ralph H. Bowen, German Theories of the Corporative State, 86. ^Bachem, 2:351; Weber, 3; Vigener, Ketteler, 273ff; Oncken, Bennigsen, 1:463. 67 This first venture of Hessian Catholics in party formation proved disastrous. While there had formerly been eight Catholics in the second chamber — of whom, however, only two had stood forth as active defenders of the Church — the Grossdeutsch-konservative Partei managed in 1862 to capture only two seats out of a total of fifty, against thirty-eight for the Progressives.

68, 166; Hansen, 1:797; HPB, 68:409-10. Bongartz, 29, 149. His major address on "The Past and Present of Catholic Theology" argued that the teaching of the Church on many points of doctrine had changed drastically in the course of its history. Therefore, he concluded, research in Church history had two fundamental tasks: first, to investigate what it had taught at various times in the past, and, second, since any dogma might be opposed to the tradition of the Church, to test whether or not any doctrine could be defined dogmatically.

28 The Foundations of Catholic Strength already been noted, although those examples are scattered and in no way represent an established policy. However, in the years following the war, the clergy was increasingly active politically in several states, attempting to secure the election to the several Landtage of delegates favorable to the interests of the Church. The reasons are not difficult to comprehend. Formerly, the Church had generally been able to secure most of what it demanded through direct relations with governments.

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