By Gail Zivin
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Extra resources for The Development of Expressive Behavior. Biology-Environment Interactions
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972. Ekman, P. Cross cultural studies of facial expression. In P. ), Darwin and facial expression: A century of research in review. New York: Academic Press, 1973. Ekman, P. Biological and cultural contributions to body and facial movement. In J. ), The anthropology of the body. London: Academic Press, 1977. , & Friesen, W. V. Detecting deception from the body or face. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1974, 29, 288-298. , & Friesen, W. V. Facial Action Coding System (FACS): A technique for the measurement of facial action.
Finally, the more general features of Darwin's book are described, and its relationship to the wider body of his evolutionary thought is presented. The evidence indicates that Darwin's nonadaptive approach to expression derived from his strong belief that psychological mechanisms played an independent role in evolution, supplementing the adaptive influence of natural selection. Darwin made two general claims in the Expression of Emotion: expression is an evolutionary product, and it has evolved in large part through distinctive processes.
He explained the characteristic expression of fear, for example, from the response of the infant during the birth process. Not all of these ideas were attractive to Charles Darwin, but the general principle seems to have convinced him thoroughly. A likely example is his comment on attention in the M Notebook: "Fear probably is connected with habitual stopping of breath to hear any sound—attitude of attention" (M Notebook, p. 131e, Barrett, 1980, p . 31). This was very close to Erasmus's account, and one can surmise that Charles was recalling it.