By Wyn Grant
Several hundred directives on environmental coverage were produced via the eu Union. What influence has the output of the 'legislative manufacturing facility' had? After contemplating how judgements on environmental coverage within the ecu are made, and the stability of strength among company and environmental pursuits, this e-book attracts at the professional services of the authors to appear intensive on the parts of worldwide warming, water toxins and air pollution.
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Additional info for The Effectiveness of European Union Environmental Policy
686). Even if a directive is passed, business lobbies may be able to undermine policies by refusing to cooperate at the implementation stage. In the case of the carbon tax, a number of member state governments were warned by their energy sectors that they would not meet voluntary energy efﬁcient targets if governments proceeded with the tax proposal or imposed it unilaterally: Trade associations of appliance makers also obstructed European efforts to impose mandatory standards for energy efﬁciency on their products, by refusing to supply data and cooperate in an energy efﬁciency study upon which to base policy, delaying the efforts of the EU to meet its obligations under the Climate Convention.
Furthermore, it was felt that enforcement was inconsistent between countries; that technical deﬁnitions were poor or inconsistent; and that regulations were too difﬁcult to understand (Porta, 1998, p. 167). ‘The main impacts upon ﬁrms are that regulations lead to increased operating costs, increased capital expenditure, and diversion of management time’ (Porta, 1998, p. 168). These impacts are greater in small businesses because they are less likely to have specialist staff to deal with environmental questions and their administrative capacity is more stretched (Grant, 1998).
336) that all the technical expertise, agenda-setting and inﬂuence of the Commission and Parliament come to nothing unless these two institutions have the determination to risk paralysing decisionmaking processes, because ultimately power resides with the Making Environmental Policy 29 Council – with a qualiﬁed majority in Council, to be more precise. Golub’s conclusions are based on a study of the Packaging Waste Directive, but that was an important directive and there is no reason to believe that it was atypical.