The Embryonic Development of Drosophila melanogaster by Jose A. Campos-Ortega, Volker Hartenstein

By Jose A. Campos-Ortega, Volker Hartenstein

" . . . yet our wisdom is so susceptible that no thinker will ever manage to thoroughly discover the character of even a fly . . . " * Thomas Aquinas "In Symbolum Apostolorum" 079 RSV p/96 this can be a monograph on embryogenesis of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, conceived as a reference e-book at the morphology of embryonic improvement. A monograph of this volume and content material isn't but to be had within the literature on Drosophila embryology, and we think that there's a genuine want for it. due to the professional­ gress accomplished over the past ten years within the fields of boost­ psychological and molecular genetics, paintings on Drosophila improvement has expanQ. ed significantly, developing an excellent higher desire for the data that we current the following. Our personal curiosity in embryonic improvement of the wild sort arose numerous years in the past, once we started to research the improvement of mutants. during those experiences we many times had social gathering to find gaps and inade­ quacies within the latest literature at the embryology of the wild kind, in order that we undertook to enquire lots of those difficulties ourselves. confident that a lot of our colleagues can have encountered comparable problems, we determined to submit the current monograph. even though no longer explicitly recorded, Thomas Aquinas used to be proba­ bly bearing on the family fly and never to the fruit fly. Irrespec­ tive of which fly he intended, although, we all know that Thomas used to be correct.

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Periodic furrows become visible in the epidermis midway in stage 10 (Fig. 1, IOc). b) Fixed Material. The stomodeum develops from the stomodeal cell plate 10cated ventrally within the anterior pole of the embryo, further anterior to the midgut primordium. All cells of the stomodeal plate start dividing approximately at the same time and the plate sinks inward (Fig. 12). After one round of mitoses divisional activity is transitorily interrupted and the stomodeal cells arrange themselves into a regular monolayered epithelium.

The primordium of the hindgut shows a conspicuous transversal fold dorsally (Fig. 13 0), from which two diverticles will form in stage 11. These are the primordia of the Malpighian tubules, whose further development will be considered later. The neuroblasts are the largest cells in the embryo of stage 10. l3A). Neuroblasts produce at divisions smaller daughter cells, so-called ganglion mother cells, which remain located proximally to the dividing neuroblasts, that is, towards the interior. This arrangement is due to the polarity of divisions, which in all germ band neuroblasts is the same, with the mitotic spindie perpendicular to the embryonic surface.

Turner and Mahowald (1977) noticed that the cells infolded posteriorly to the posterior midgut rudiment are clearly different from the cells of the ventral furrow, despite their topological continuity, and recognized that they will give rise to the hindgut and the proctodeal opening. Weshall return to this point later. The dorsal folds, called anterior and posterior transverse folds, appear dorsally at the onset of gastrulation (Fig. 6 F) and exhibit an oblique course, diverging from dorsal to ventral.

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