By Alan Milward
This newly revised and up to date moment variation is the vintage fiscal and political account of the origins of the ecu neighborhood. On one point it really is an unique research of the forces which introduced the EC jointly, on one other it's an evidence in accordance with historic research of the longer term dating among geographical region and the eu Union. Combining political with fiscal research, and in keeping with large basic learn in different international locations, this ebook bargains a tough interpretation of the historical past of the western ecu nation and eu integration.
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Extra resources for The European Rescue of the Nation State
8 million in Italy, if agricultural labour is also included amongst the beneficiaries, and 5 million in the Federal Republic. The third common feature of the consensus is those sets of policies loosely referred to as the welfare state. National welfare regimes came in different political forms, because their earlier historical origins were different, because the state machinery varied, because they were animated by different political philosophies, and because the specific concessions which they offered were to different categories of voters.
If all the long-run interpretations of the future of nations previously offered by economics and political science have to be judged with great scepticism once they are compared to the long run of real historical change, if there is no acceptable theoretical explanation of the specific case of European integration, historians can hardly leave the matter there. It is surely up to them to construct something in place of what they have eliminated. Any new theoretical explanation of integration will have to start from a new set of basic assumptions in conformity with the facts which historical research has brought to light.
Transfer payments helped to stabilize the economy even where govern-ments did not vary them in a deliberate attempt at demand management. Only in the United Kingdom, which relied heavily after 1951 on abrupt changes in interest rates as well as experiments in demand management through fiscal policy, was the government budget destabilizing. Elsewhere in Europe, at least over the period 1955–65, a large fiscal presence stabilized the trend of GNP growth. 20 Beyond the impact of large government budgets on sustaining demand and possibly creating a more dynamic climate of expansion it is necessary to look at specific areas of government investment.