The Frozen Water Trade by Gavin Weightman

By Gavin Weightman

The tale of the 19th-century ice exchange, during which ice from the lakes of recent England – valued for its amazing purity – revolutionised family existence round the world.

In the times earlier than man made refrigeration, it was once suggestion very unlikely to move ice for lengthy distances. yet one guy, Frederic Tudor, used to be confident it can be performed. this can be the tale of the way, nearly single-handedly, and within the face of near-universal mockery, he tested an enormous that might introduce some great benefits of clean ice to giant elements of the globe.

Thanks to Tudor, the yank type for beverages ‘on the rocks’ unfold to tropical components similar to the West Indies and British India. by means of the 1830s fleets of schooners carried the frozen shipment, filled with sawdust and tarpaulins for insulation, to all corners of the area. The harvesting of the ice from New England’s lakes hired millions of men.

The frozen water exchange had a profound impact at the tastes of a big a part of the area, yet with the advance of synthetic cooling structures within the first area of the 20 th century, the massive tested by means of Frederic Tudor vanished as though it had by no means been.

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7 The Laws of Humans and Gods 19 procession, bawdy songs or songs of praise for the bride and groom were recited or sung. On the way to, and upon entering, her new home, the bride performed some kind of ritual act, perhaps involving the dedication of coins or the application of unguents to the house’s doorposts, and she pronounced her consent to be married. In the groom’s home, he may have given his own acknowledgment of his intention to marry the bride, perhaps by an offer of fire and water. The couple, now married, celebrated with guests, and then the bride may have been accompanied to her new bedchamber where her groom awaited her.

During or after this 6 With few exceptions, like the wedding of slaves in Plautus’ Casina. For example, the so-called Fescennines. 8 Of course, the lack of luxury may have been deliberate: Nero and Messalina, or perhaps the authors who wrote about them, wanted to show that their weddings were as “standard” as possible (which would further prove their depravity). However, we might wonder if any aspects of the otherworldly wedding of Peleus and Thetis in Catullus’ poem 64 were informed by the poet’s own experience; are the fantastic d´ecor and famous guests meant to be read as humorous and hyperbolic versions of real weddings of the late Republic?

But Juvenal, unlike Tacitus, did not find the wedding of two men to be the worst sin imaginable: in fact Juvenal found Gracchus as a gladiator to be far more offensive than Gracchus as a bride. 78 Dio Cass. 2–3. The Laws of Humans and Gods 37 We have seen in these final examples that same-sex weddings, or the idea of them, may have been disturbing to other Romans precisely because the men celebrating were said to have lasting marriage in mind – that is, the partners seem to share affectio maritalis.

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