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Additional resources for The Marshall Plan: Lessons Learned for the 21st Century
World Bank, 1999). • 41 • CHAPTER 2 Nation-Building in the Heyday of the Classic Development Ideology Ford Foundation Experience in the 1950s and 1960s Francis X. Sutton THE FORD FOUNDATION’S roots lay in alarm over FDR’s 1935 request to Congress for an inheritance tax or a steeply progressive estate tax, which brought subsequent legislation and led promptly to the foundation’s establishment on January 15, 1936. The deaths of Edsel Ford in 1943 and Henry Ford Sr. in 1947 brought it great potential wealth, because their wills made the foundation heir to about 90 percent of the Ford Motor Company.
Gunnar Myrdal, Development and Underdevelopment: A Note on the Mechanism of National and International Economic Inequality (Cairo: National Bank of Egypt, 1956), 62; W. : Richard D. : Harvard University Press, 1962); John Kenneth Galbraith, Economic Development (New York: Houghton Mifﬂin, 1962). 11. W. Arthur Lewis, “Development Planning,” in International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, vol. 12 (New York: Macmillan, 1968), 118–25. • 37 • • David Ekbladh 12. John W. Gardner, Aid and the Universities (New York: Education and World Affairs, 1964).
S. government of the indispensable capacity of various charities, voluntary organizations, universities, missionary groups, businesses, and foundations as relief and reconstruction blurred into economic and social development. S. S. foreign aid programs after the war. 5 These organizations did not always agree with government policy and certainly were not uniform in their outlooks, but there was a wideranging acceptance of the view that modernization was a positive force and a general consensus on how it should proceed.