The Oxford History of the British Empire, Volume 3: The

The Oxford heritage of the British Empire is an evaluation of the Empire within the gentle of modern scholarship and the revolutionary establishing of historic files. quantity III covers the lengthy 19th century, from the fulfillment of yank independence within the 1780s to the eve of global warfare in 1914. This was once the interval of Britain's maximum growth as either empire-builder and dominant international strength. it's divided into components. the 1st comprises thematic chapters, a few concentrating on Britain, others on parts on the imperial outer edge, exploring these basic dynamics of British enlargement that made imperial impact and rule attainable. additionally they study the commercial, cultural, and institutional frameworks that gave form to Britain's in a foreign country empire. half 2 is dedicated to the imperative components of imperial task abroad, together with either white settler and tropical colonies. Chapters research how British pursuits and imperial rule formed person regions' 19th century political and socio-economic heritage. topics handled contain the economics of empire, imperial associations, defence, expertise, imperial and colonial cultures, technology and exploration.

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H. H. Green. S. B. Saul, Studies in British Overseas Trade, 1870-1914 (Liverpool, 1960). 8 ANDREW PORTER onerous, even as growth itself held out the prospect of rinding resources required to mount such defences. Britain's inescapable dependence on her navy forced governments after 1880 to accept the steady escalation of naval estimates, as the defence of the Empire and of overseas trade once more became virtually inseparable. Advanced capitalist societies, such as the United States and those of western Europe, found mounting levels of British economic activity compatible with their own unfettered political and economic independence.

Understood in this way, 'culture' clearly influenced and was influenced by expansion, economic practice, and the nature of government; it was also shaped by the encounters of different peoples within the framework of Empire. 49 However, the significance of Scots to Imperial expansion, and of Empire for Scotland, is hardly less. 50 Among the Empire's migrants as well as its administrators and soldiers, Scots equalled the English in numbers. Everywhere they became steadily more prominent: in the East India Company; in the great trading firms, such as Jardine Matheson (Asia), Balfour Williamson (Latin America), and Mackinnon Mackenzie (Indian Ocean and East Africa); in organizing and manning shipping companies, such as the City, Clan, and Castle Lines, and the British India Steam Navigation Company, as well as in managing and equipping many lesser firms, such as the Irrawaddy Flotilla Company; and in Scottish missions, scattered across the globe.

49 See chap, by David Fitzpatrick. 50 See below, pp. 273-74, 289-90. 51 John M. MacKenzie, 'On Scotland and the Empire', International History Review, XV (1993), pp. 714-39. 48 2O ANDREW PORTER In a gesture dismissive of those who emphasized the narrowly chauvinist or exclusively Imperial character of missionary enterprise, and simultaneously assertive of Scotland's global role, the World Missionary Conference of 1910 was held in Edinburgh. The smaller Welsh diaspora, much of it from south Wales, has been much less investigated, but both inside and outside the Empire displayed similar characteristics.

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