By James R Lehning
Lehning unearths that fiscal improvement in Marlhes didn't break its peasantry. quite, the peasants adjusted to the economic forces of the commercial global by means of adapting conventional varieties of habit and attitudes towards the recent stipulations, no longer forsaking previous methods and adopting unusual ones. in truth, the peasant relations was once a remarkably versatile unit, adapting styles of relatives habit to the impression of undefined, marketplace agriculture, and heavy rural-urban migration.
Originally released in 1980.
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Factory weaving became concentrated not only among young single women, but also among those members of the rural community who owned little or no land. The concentration of weaving among the poorer, landless portion of the population was probably also associated with the increasing demands of market agriculture: married women were needed to prepare the agricultural products such as milk and cheese that provided cash income by the end of the century. Participation in the weaving trade became limited to the unmarried daughters of those without land and who therefore did not need their work on a farm.
As with market participation, the pattern of development in the ribbon industry created two groups in the rural community, characterized by different types of participation in the economic structure. That these two factors both distinguished groups on the basis of the amount of land held meant that they reinforced each other and strengthened the divisions between the two groups. Thus, the development of the rural economy in the last half of the nineteenth century had extensive implications for the organization of the Experience of Economic Change : 4 7 rural community.
Probably the small towns of the coal basin, which still included a substantial proportion of agricultural workers in their populations, were able to satisfy their needs within their own commune or canton. The larger, more heavily industrialized center, Saint-Etienne, had to go farther away for its purchases. Because the sale of animals for butchering to supply meat to the urban population 24 The Peasants of Marlhes RhOne Haute-Loire Ardeche • fair and market • market only Figure 3. L. 58 M 16. Growth of the Urban Economy : 25 did not take place in the city itself but in the surrounding countryside, the Saint-Etienne fair was seldom frequented, while those in the countryside bustled with activity.