By Vijay Sarthy
The human mind includes greater than a thousand million neurons which interconnect to shape networks that method, shop, and keep in mind sensory details. those neuronal actions are supported through a gaggle of accent mind cells coll- tively referred to as neuroglia. strangely, glial cells are ten instances extra - merous than neurons, and occupy greater than part the mind quantity (Hydén, 1961). even if lengthy thought of a passive, albeit important, portion of the fearful approach, many fascinating and strange sensible homes of glial cells are just now being delivered to gentle. for this reason, the prestige of those mobile components is coming near near parity with nerve cells as a subject matter for experimental examine. The time period glia (or glue) turns out at the present time to be a misnomer in view of the varied services attributed to glial cells. Experimental experiences within the final 3 a long time have in actual fact verified that the habit of glial cells is much from passive, and they are no less than as advanced as neurons with reference to their membrane homes. additionally, glial cells are of significance in sign processing, mobile metabolism, frightened approach improvement, and the pathophysiology of neurological illnesses. The Müller cellphone of the ver- brate retina presents a fantastic instance of an adjunct phone that indicates good points illustrating each point of the advanced habit now linked to glial cells.
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Additional info for The Retinal Muller Cell: Structure and Function
14). The terminal ends of Müller cells are in intimate contact with, but separated from, a filamentous basement membrane that constitutes the inner limiting membrane (ILM) (Fig. , 1971; Foos, 1972, 1974; Heegard, 1994, 1997). Whether the Müller cell contributes to the formation of this basal lamina is a question yet to be fully resolved. 14. Photomicrograph of rabbit Müller cells at the upturned edge of a retinal whole mount labeled with antivimentin. There is a lack of continuity between the Müller cell endfeet at the vitreal margin of the retina.
At issue are questions such as which extrinsic factors influence Müller cell fate, what transcription factors determine Müller cell fate, and which retinal cell interactions are crucial. Finally, the signal involved in suppressing Müller cell mitotic activity in the adult retina needs to be identified. 2. ROLES IN RETINAL DEVELOPMENT So far, the discussion has focused on the developmental aspects of the Müller cell. Do Müller cells play an influential role in development of neurons? The role of the Müller cell in retinal development is poorly understood.
1994). These examples illustrate the point that some well-accepted Müller cell-specific markers are probably expressed by all cells in the embryonic retina, but their expression becomes restricted to Müller cells in the adult. Therefore, some commonly used “Müller cell markers” may not be useful indicators of Müller cell differentiation during development. It appears that negative regulatory elements acting in conjunction with neuron-specific transcription factors are responsible for turning off the expression of carbonic anydrase and glucocorticoid receptor genes in retinal neurons during or after their differentiation, whereas the genes remain active in Müller cells (cf.