By Christophe Bonneuil, Jean-Baptiste Fressoz
The Earth has entered a brand new epoch: the Anthropocene. What we face isn't just an environmental situation, yet a geological revolution of human starting place. In centuries, our planet has tipped right into a nation unknown for thousands of years.
How did we get thus far? Refuting the handy view of a “human species” that disenchanted the Earth method, ignorant of what it was once doing, this e-book proposes the 1st serious heritage of the Anthropocene, shaking up many authorized rules: approximately our supposedly contemporary “environmental awareness,” approximately prior demanding situations to industrialism, in regards to the manufacture of lack of knowledge and consumerism, approximately so-called power transitions, in addition to in regards to the function of the army in environmental destruction. In a discussion among technology and background, The surprise of the Anthropocene dissects a brand new theoretical buzzword and explores paths for residing and performing politically during this quickly constructing geological epoch.
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Extra resources for The Shock of the Anthropocene: The Earth, History and Us
Zu Erfurt. Carl Villaret, Erfurt Keller B (1930) Die Erdflechten und Cyanophyceen am unteren Lauf der Wolga und des Ural. In: Karsten G (ed) Vegetationsbilder, Reihe 20, Heft 8. Fischer, Jena Killian C, Fehe´r D (1939) Recherches sur la microbiologie des sols de´sertiques. Paul Lechevallier, Paris Kleiner EF, Harper KT (1972) Environment and community organization in grasslands of Canyonlands National Park. Ecology 53:299–309 Kleiner EF, Harper KT (1977) Soil properties in relation to cryptogamic groundcover in Canyonlands National Park.
2013). 5 Ga ago. This result is unsurprising considering the modern ecological capabilities of microbes, which are comparable with fossil analogs and have profound effects in sediments and soils (Belnap and Lange 2001; Navarro-Gonza´lez et al. 2003; Beraldi-Campesi and Garcia-Pichel 2011; Retallack 2012). 5 Ga, but undisputable biosignatures before that time are ambiguous (Nutman et al. 2010; Papineau et al. 2010), and the timing when life first populated the Earth is still unresolved. Direct evidence for ancient terrestrial communities comes from the fossil record, and the several limitations of such should be noted.
Carbon isotopic composition of biologically produced organic matter is depleted in 13C (δ13Corg ¼ À10 ‰ to À30 ‰), and soil methanogens create extreme depletion (δ13Corg ¼ À30 ‰ to > À90 ‰; Schidlowski 2001). 7 Ga (Rye and Holland 2000), as well as for geologically younger paleosols (Retallack and Mindszenty 1994; Watanabe et al. 2000; Retallack et al. 2013a, b). Ironically, the carbon content of Precambrian paleosols is very low (<<1 wt %), about the same as for Phanerozoic paleosols (Tomescu et al.