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As the clerk of the court noted, on February 25, 1815, “Upon the application of the President, Managers and Company of the Washington Baltimore Turnpike Road the Court appoint[s] Richard T. ”8 Calvert probably thereby ensured he was minimally inconvenienced by the road, but maximally enriched by it. Toll charges were 6¼ cents per 10 miles for a single horse and rider, 12½ cents for a one-horse chaise with two wheels, 25 cents for a twohorse coach with four wheels, and 37½ cents for a four-horse coach with four wheels.
12 However, although quite a few Chesapeake planters manumitted their slaves, not least George Washington of course, the large majority did not. Prince Georgian large planters held an average of 59 slaves each in 1800 (or 63, discounting Samuel Snowden), 48 in 1810, and 76 in 1820, the fluctuations suggesting they rented and bought and sold enslaved people on a regular basis as part of economic management strategies. Most smaller and middling planters held slaves too: 52 of 54 in 1800; 38 of 43 in 1810; and 44 of 48 in 1820.
30 The Calverts also added £30 worth of property to their “other” personal property holdings in 1807. Assessors did not record changes in quantities of property every year, though, and nor were planters assiduous in updating the Levy Court about their taxable acquisitions—a legal requirement that the Levy Court never seems to have enforced. 31 When the Levy Court began recording some assessments in dollars in 1813, assessors updated their records. 58. 40, although 429 out of 1,620 household heads that year had no taxable property.