By Laura Mahrenbach
Laura Carsten Mahrenbach examines the household stipulations which lead rising energy states Brazil and India to settle on particular innovations in pursuit of exchange coverage goals.
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Extra resources for The Trade Policy of Emerging Powers: Strategic Choices of Brazil and India
Substitution strategies seek to use means outside the WTO to perform the functions normally accomplished within this institution. In so doing, governments do not seek to substitute all functions of an institution at once. Rather, they choose one function at a time. Negotiating a PTA outside the WTO, for example, does not necessarily imply the governments involved in the negotiations would necessarily avoid using the adjudication offered by the WTO’s DSB when a trade partner’s policy negatively impacts that state’s trade.
Thus the strategies chosen by EP governments in the empirical chapters are taken at face value. If a government chose to participate in the Doha Round negotiations, it was presumed that government did so for the purpose of achieving the purpose of the Doha negotiations (which, in this case, would be liberalization of world trade). Control: The nature of trade policy activities outside the WTO The moves of EP states toward increased strategic diversity in their trade policies tap into larger debates about the implications of such strategic diversity for future governance of world trade via the WTO.
Martinez-Diaz and Brainard (2009, 2) note, whereas trade represented on average only 15–20 percent of Brazilian income between the 1970s and 2001, this figure increased Brazil: Context and Trade Liberalization 39 to 25–30 percent between 2001 and 2006. As is evident in Brazil’s two most recent TPRs, which cover the period between 1999 and 2008, this increase in trading activities is supported both by diverse geographic trading patterns and by diversity in the export structure. 1, xi). 1, 1; WT/TPR/S/140, 12–13, 189–190).