By David Gladstone (auth.)
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Additional resources for The Twentieth-Century Welfare State
The Act did not specify the form of secondary education, though it was implicit from the recommendations of the Spens ( 1938) and Norwood ( 1943) Reports that it would be organized on tripartite lines into grammar, technical and secondary-modern schools. 'What the 1944 settlement achieved was a rationalisation and an expansion of existing patterns of educational provision' (Hennessy, 1993, p. 155). It was a settlement which turned out to be safe in Labour's hands. Creation 43 This has led some to criticize the Attlee government for its failure to introduce a distinctively socialist policy in the field of education (see Rubinstein, 1979; Benn, 1980).
Its new found commitment to a firmly socialist course' (Ritschl, 1997, pp. 99, l 00). Labour's Immediate Programme of 1937 was the consolidation of that process. It advocated public control of finance, land, transport, coal and power - the principal levers of the economic machine - as well as proposals for higher wages, better pensions, improved education and extended health services (Brooke, 1992, pp. 30-2). When Labour entered the Coalition government in 1940 it did so with a distinctive programme already established in which the notion of planning in the public interest was paramount.
Labour's inheritance on the issue of social reform was diverse (Thane, 1984). , p. 882). The Liberal welfare reforms intensified these previous divisions, but after 1906 'the stance most characteristic of organised labour ... , p. 897). As we have already noted, the Liberal's programme was far removed from the values of traditional liberal individualism and there were those such as Hillaire Belloc, G. K. V. Dicey who opposed the tendency of the centralizing state. In The Servile State (1912) Belloc was critical of a society in which 'the mass of men are "constrained by law to labour to the profit of a minority" while receiving as compensation "a security which the Old Captitalism did not give them"' (Greenleaf, 1983, p.