The White Welfare State: The Racialization of U.S. Welfare by Deborah E. Ward

By Deborah E. Ward

The White Welfare country demanding situations universal misconceptions of the advance of U.S. welfare coverage. Arguing that race has continuously been principal to welfare policy-making within the usa, Deborah Ward breaks new floor through displaying that the moms' Pensions--the Progressive-Era precursors to trendy welfare programs--were premised on a coverage of racial discrimination opposed to blacks and different minorities. Ward's rigorous and carefully documented research demonstrates that the construction and implementation of the moms' pensions application was once pushed via debates approximately who "deserved" social welfare and never who wanted it the most."In The White Welfare country, Deborah Ward assembles a robust array of documentary and statistical facts to bare the mechanisms, centrality, and deep old continuity of racial exclusion in smooth 'welfare' provision within the usa. Bringing extraordinary scrutiny to the provisions and implementation of state-level moms' pensions, she argues persuasively that racialized styles of welfare management have been firmly entrenched during this revolutionary period laws, simply to be followed and bolstered within the New Deal welfare kingdom. With rigorous and clear-eyed research, she pushes us to confront the singular position of race in welfare's improvement, from its early 20th-century origins to its legitimate dying at century's end."--Alice O'Connor, college of California at Santa Barbara"This is a richly informative and arresting paintings. The White Welfare kingdom will strength a reevaluation of the position racism has performed as a basic function in even the main innovative beneficial properties of the yankee welfare kingdom. Written elegantly, this publication will impress a wide-ranging dialogue between social scientists, historians, and scholars of public policy."--Ira Katznelson, Ruggles Professor of Political technology and background, Columbia University"This booklet bargains an unique and soaking up account of early guidelines that formed the process the yankee welfare country. It extends but demanding situations extant interpretations and expands our knowing of the interconnections of race and sophistication concerns within the united states, and American political improvement extra broadly."--Rodney Hero, collage of Notre Dame

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Other organiza­ tions at the vanguard of the public welfare campaign, such as the Na­ tional Consumers' League, the Women's Trade Union League, and the settlement houses, saw mothers' pensions as only one step in the right di­ rection and focused more on successive steps. Finally, thousands of poor, single mothers wrote to local, state, and na­ tional agencies, urging support for mothers' aid legislation. One New York mother wrote in 1897, I am a scrubwoman in City Hall where y ou daily come to y our office and since the mothers' bill has passed the Senate and Assembly I have watched the papers to see by y our inhumanity and injustice how long will the widows and orphans be deprived of the benefits of this bill?

Other advocates insisted that because society was responsible for the husband's death-either as a re­ sult of inadequate wages or as a result of a preventable disease or acci­ dent-society was also responsible for assuaging the widow's poverty. The view that these women were entitled to aid was novel in the history of American welfare. Both public and private aid had previously been as­ sociated with the recipient's failure to provide for her or hin1self. 18 The request for mothers' aid would constitute not a sign of moral baseness or failure but payment for service.

These groups' child- and mother-saving campaigns were filled with condescension for poor women. Finally, the rhetoric of these women's organizations was sufficiently ambiguous that claims of protecting the mothers of the ��race" like those of the National Congress of Mothers could have as easily meant Anglo-Saxons as the human race. Although many of these won1en were sincerely concerned with the welfare of poor mothers and their children, class and race prej­ udice created a disconnect between what these mothers and children needed and what was being provided for them.

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