By Metals & Materials Society (TMS) The Minerals
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As a result, their model predicts the instantaneous solutal length, interface velocity, solute concentration at the interface and interface position. One assumption behind this model is that the thermal field is frozen so that the recoil is only of solutal origin. We have previously demonstrated that we are not in such a configuration. Thus, the WL model cannot be directly used but it has to be modified to include the thermal effects previously identified. Numerical studies to evaluate the transient interface velocity for purely thermal effects after a velocity jump in a Bridgman furnace [16, 17] concluded that the interface position asymptotically approach its steady state position with a time dependent thermal shift zT [1 exp(-t/W)], where t is the time, zT is the total isotherm shift at the steady state resulting from both latent heat release and instrumental recoil, and W is a delay time dependent of the physical parameters of the alloy, the geometry of the furnace and crucible, the thermal gradient and the pulling rate.
Therefore, equiaxed microstructures on Earth and in microgravity are dramatically different. Furthermore, gravity is at the origin of mechanical effects, which can induce the bending of secondary arms when the latter are long enough. In some cases, the bending phenomenon can precede the dendrite fragmentation [3, 4]. Finally, a less common issue 43 related to gravity is the hydrostatic pressure in the melt. It is well known that hydrostatic pressure applied during solidification significantly reduces the formation of porosities.
The ESL laboratory’s main chamber has been upgraded with the addition of a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy, as a quench medium. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals. Up to eight quench vessels can be loaded into a wheel inside the chamber that is indexed with control software. The system has been tested successfully with samples of zirconium, iron-cobalt alloys, iron-chromium-nickel, titanium-zirconium-nickel alloys, and a silicon-cobalt alloy.