By Robert B. Armeson
During the latter half the 19th century great fiscal, technological, and medical advancements came about in Western Europe as states shifted from predominantly agricultural to pre dominantly business economies. due to those alterations, the character of battle altered. the 1st international battle was once now not easily a fight among the defense force of belligerent international locations. It used to be a complete conflict which eventually concerned the entire forces within the international locations on a scale and with an depth which mankind had by no means earlier than skilled. overall struggle demanded the whole power of the country. In Germany the transition to overall war all started earliest and went furthest. Even there it used to be born no longer within the early days of the combating, yet merely after the clash prolonged past the interval initially antici pated. by way of mid-I916, the fight had became basically right into a conflict of fabric, and it turned obvious that its fiscal and technical features have been extra vital than the basically army. An ever better creation of war-essential items turned the paramount desire. Germany's militia had grown to an extraordinary dimension, yet every one guy within the army provider represented while a rise within the want for offers and a reduce within the efficient exertions strength. The crux of the matter was once the manpower shortage.
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342; Hoffman, op. , I, I46, I56. Ludendorff, Urkunden der Obersten Heeresleitung, p. 76; Siehler and Tiburtius, op. , • OPPOSITION TO TOTAL WARFARE 45 Ludendorff confined himself to a few points. He mentioned that it was necessary to call into military service those men who so far had not helped in the defense of their country and, in the issue of Freizugigkeit, Ludendorff merely stated that it was important to take steps to restrict this action to men engaged in war industries. 1 Between October 7 and 10, 1916, however, Ludendorff and his chief aide, Colonel Bauer, had several conversations with Groener about the establishment of a Supreme War Office with Groener as head 2 and which would administer all matters relating to the conduct of the war economy, including the levying, employment, and feeding of the labor force engaged in the manufacture of arms and munitions.
Dr. , p. 386. , p. 387. Italics in the original. Loc. cit. , 388f£. 32 POLITICAL GENERALS AND INDUSTRIAL MAGNATES subordinate officers that labor was to be made available for in dustry. Schroder (mining) complained that "the Ukrainians simply will not work ... " He also came out in favor of a labor office. Vogler (representative of Stinnes) spoke in favor of raw materials and labor being made available on a larger scale. That night Walther Rathenau sent a special plea to Hindenburg and Ludendorff.
42 OPPOSITION TO TOTAL WARFARE of foreign policies, and I never ceased to set forth my views on the subject to the authorities; still matters of military necessity 1 were imperatively conclusive for the authorities within whose competence the matter came. I was not in the position to stop the measure . . 2 The Chancellor, Bethmann Hollweg, agreed with Zimmermann that in terms of statesmanship the Belgian deportations were highly unwelcome. "The military branch claimed that they were matters of necessity, resulting from a forced situation, essential for the purpose of carrying out the Hindenburg Program.