By Steel Construction Institute (Great Britain). Fire and Blast Information Group.; Steel Construction Institute (Great Britain)
Describes an overview procedure for calculating the speed at which the quantity of a vapour cloud raises in the course of an overfilling incident. The evaluate additionally supplies the focus of hydrocarbons within the cloud and gives a few assistance at the volume of cloud unfold in quite flat websites with the type of obstructions that might be general in and round a gas depot tank farm. This Technical word permits vapour cloud evaluate for an overfill of a variety of fuels and solvents which are in most cases saved in huge volumes. Substance/mixture particular equilibrium thermodynamic research of air/liquid combos in humid atmospheres has been performed and an empirical correlation and constants are only if will enable the vapour focus on the foot of the overfill cascade to be estimated. when the HSE VCA technique used to be constructed for vapour cloud improvement because of overfills in calm stipulations, this Technical notice offers a few initial information on extending the evaluate to low (non-zero) wind speeds and to calculating the speed at which a cloud could gather on the subject of spray releases (e.g. flange failure or pipe rupture). Read more...
summary: Describes an evaluate strategy for calculating the speed at which the quantity of a vapour cloud raises in the course of an overfilling incident. The evaluate additionally provides the focus of hydrocarbons within the cloud and offers a few suggestions at the quantity of cloud unfold in fairly flat websites with the type of obstructions that might be general in and round a gas depot tank farm. This Technical be aware permits vapour cloud review for an overfill of quite a number fuels and solvents which are quite often kept in huge volumes. Substance/mixture particular equilibrium thermodynamic research of air/liquid combos in humid atmospheres has been performed and an empirical correlation and constants are only if will let the vapour focus on the foot of the overfill cascade to be anticipated. when the HSE VCA technique was once built for vapour cloud improvement because of overfills in calm stipulations, this Technical notice provides a few initial assistance on extending the review to low (non-zero) wind speeds and to calculating the speed at which a cloud may possibly gather on the subject of spray releases (e.g. flange failure or pipe rupture)
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And Hunt, J. C. , (1998) Spray jets in a cross-flow, J. Fluid Mech, vol. 365, pp. 109 MoPNG Committee 2010 (constituted by Govt. of India) Independent Inquiry Committee Report on Indian Oil Terminal Fire at Jaipur on 29th October 2009; completed 29th January 2010. in). Steel Construction Institute, 2009. htm). Stiver, W.
At very high mass flow density both liquid and vapour velocity approach the free-fall velocity; air resistance becomes negligible. 1 Droplet and vapour velocities as a function of drop height and liquid mass flow density. Droplet diameter is 2 mm and liquid density 650 kg/m3. K) ٓ ܥ௨ Fuel concentration at the base of a tank for the reference spill conditions (% w/w) Rescape Distance to which cloud impedes escape (m) Rignition D Tank diameter (m) Distance to which cloud may be ignited at low level (m) E Evaporation flux from a pool (kg/m2/s) t Release duration (s) Tambient F Fuel concentration correction factor (-) Ambient (air) temperature at 10 m elevation (°C) Gravitational acceleration (m/s2) Ta g Ambient temperature evaporation calculation) (K) h Height of vapour cloud (m) Tfuel Temperature of released fuel (°C) H Tank height (m) U Wind velocity (m/s) k Mass transfer coefficient (m/s) udroplet Droplet velocity (m/s) M Molecular mass (kg/kmol) uvapour Vapour velocity (m/s) Mair Mass of air entrained into the cascade (kg/s) Vliquid Liquid discharged rate from a ruptured line (m3/s) Mcloud Total mass of vapour phase in a cloud (kg/s) Vcloud Rate of increase in volume of cloud (m3/s) mdroplet Liquid droplet mass (kg) Į, ȕ, Ȗ, į Fitted parameters for F, the fuel concentration correction factor (-) Mfuel Tank filling rate (kg/s) ȡambient Msplash Mass of liquid at foot of cascade that leaves as fine spray (kg/s) Density of air temperature (kg/m3) ȡfuel Liquid fuel density (kg/m3) ǻȡ Difference between cloud ambient density (kg/m3) Mvaporised vi in cloud Mass of liquid vaporised at the foot of a tank (kg/s) at (pool ambient and FABIG Technical Note 12 Vapour Cloud Development in Over-filling Incidents 7.
1 Tank overfill Spray releases Vapour cloud volume and concentration – accuracy of predictions Fixed roof vented tank (typical gasoline tank) The flow rate distribution of released liquid is normally known with confidence. The method should provide very good estimates of cloud volume and concentration. Floating roof tank The flow rate is generally known but the distribution of the liquid release during an over fill depends on the design, construction and degree of settlement of individual tanks.