By Mark C. McKinstry, Wayne A. Hubert, Stanley H. Anderson
Wetlands and riparian components among the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada are highly diversified and important habitats. greater than eighty percentage of the natural world species during this intermountain quarter rely on those wetlands--which account for only 2 percentage of the land area--for their survival. while, the wetlands additionally serve the water wishes of ranchers and farmers, recreationists, holiday groups, and towns. it's no exaggeration to name water the ''liquid gold'' of the West, and the burgeoning human calls for in this scarce source make it important to appreciate and correctly deal with the wetlands and riverine parts of the Intermountain West. This ebook deals land managers, biologists, and learn scientists a state of the art survey of the ecology and administration practices of wetland and riparian parts within the Intermountain West. Twelve articles study such various matters as legislation and laws affecting those habitats, the original physiographic gains of the sector, the significance of wetlands and riparian parts to fish, flora and fauna, and farm animals, the ecological functionality of those parts, their worth to people, and the the right way to assessment those habitats. The authors additionally tackle the human affects at the land from city and suburban improvement, mining, grazing, strength extraction, activity, water diversions, and bushes harvesting and recommend how one can mitigate such affects. as well as the editors, the members to this quantity are: Paul Adamus, Oregon country college, Corvallis Michael A. Bozek, college of Wisconsin, Stevens aspect Robert C. Ehrhart, Oregon nation college, Bend James H. Gammonley, Colorado department of flora and fauna, citadel Collins Paul L. Hansen, Bitterroot recovery, Corvallis, Montana E. Andrew Hart, collage of Wyoming, Laramie Murray okay. Laubhan, U.S. Geological Survey, castle Collins, Colorado Kirk Lohman, college of Idaho, Moscow James R. Lovvorn, collage of Wyoming, Laramie Neal D. Niemuth, college of Wisconsin, Stevens element Richard A. Olson, college of Wyoming, Laramie Neil F. Payne, collage of Wisconsin, Stevens aspect Mark A. Rumble, U.S. division of Agriculture, wooded area provider, Rocky Mountain learn Station, quick urban, South Dakota Maureen Ryan, collage of Toledo (Ohio) university of legislations Brian E. Smith, U.S. Geological Survey, Northern Prairie natural world examine middle, Jamestown, North Dakota Mark Squillace, college of Toledo (Ohio) collage of legislations Stephen A. Tessmann, Wyoming video game and Fish division, Cheyenne David W. Willis, South Dakota nation college, Brookings
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Extra resources for Wetland and Riparian Areas of the Intermountain West: Ecology and Management
3(a) (2000)) provide as follows: The term waters of the United States means: (1) All waters which are currently used, or were used in the past, or may be susceptible to use in interstate or foreign commerce, including all waters which are subject to the ebb and ﬂow of the tide; (2) All interstate waters including interstate wetlands; (3) All other waters such as intrastate lakes, rivers, streams (including intermittent streams), mudﬂats, sandﬂats, wetlands, sloughs, prairie potholes, wet meadows, playa lakes, or natural ponds, the use, degradation or destruction of which could affect interstate or foreign commerce including any such waters: (i) Which are or could be used by interstate or foreign travelers for recreational or other purposes; or (ii) From which ﬁsh or shellﬁsh are or could be taken and sold in interstate or foreign commerce; or (iii) Which are used or could be used for industrial purpose by industries in interstate commerce; (4) All impoundments of waters otherwise deﬁned as waters of the United States under the deﬁnition; (5) Tributaries of waters identiﬁed in paragraphs (a) (1) through (4) of this section; (6) The territorial seas; 20 ryan and squillace (7) Wetlands adjacent to waters (other than waters that are themselves wetlands) identiﬁed in paragraphs (a) (1) through (6) of this section.
C. R. 32(b) (2000). 106. R. 32(a)(2) (2000) lists factors to be considered, such as whether woody hydrophytic vegetation has been removed, in designating a “converted” wetland. 107. R. 5 (2000). 108. R. 5(b)(2)(i) and (ii) (2000). 109. R. 5(b)(2)(iv) (2000). 110. R. 5(b)(2)(ii), (iii) (2000). 111. See Gunn v. 3d 1233 (8th Cir. 1997). 112. R. 5(b)(4)(i) (2000). 113. R. 5(b)(5)(i)(A), (B) (2000). 114. R. 5(b)(v) (2000). 115. C. § 3837 (1994 & Supp. 1996). 116. C. § 3837c(d) (1994 & Supp. 1996). 117.
Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming have historically followed the prior appropriation system. Id. at 6. The states along the West coast, and those in the middle of the country through which the 100th meridian passes, including California, Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, and Washington, began as riparian states but have now effectively shifted to a prior appropriation system. Remnants of the riparian system remain in these states to varying degrees.